Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a neuropsychological disorder that gained attention over the years due to soldiers returning from war with what use to be called “shell shock.” Post-traumatic stress disorder, however, is not solely associated with soldiers returning from war. In fact, the vast majority of people who suffer from PTSD is found in another population; adult women who suffered from childhood sexual abuse. The research for how childhood trauma, especially abuse by one’s caregiver, affects the brain is still a relatively new field, but evidence has revealed that it can change one’s brain, and thereby, change how a person responses to trauma in the future. Researchers also know that early victims are more likely to be re-victimized in the future; increasing one’s chances of developing PTSD. In this paper, I will discuss the effects of PTSD on the adult brain of a childhood sexual abuse survivor.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a neuropsychological disorder that is caused by exposure to extreme trauma and stress. These incidences; sexual assault; unexpected death of a loved one; threatened death to one’s self or a loved one; obtaining or being threatened with serious bodily harm; or witnessing traumatic events such as a serious car accident (such as in the case of first responders); living through a natural disaster; and experiencing war; can cause a person to have vivid, intrusive, reoccurring flashbacks, nightmares, thoughts, or emotional or physical reactions to either internal or external cues that remind one of the incident  (DSM 5, 2013). In response to these intrusive memories, individuals will often employ some type of avoidance behavior; they will avoid talking about or being reminded of the event(s) in any way.

In addition, patients will experience a wide range of emotions that are negative in nature, and they must experience at least two of the following symptoms, in addition to the above symptoms, to be diagnosed with PTSD (DSM 5, 2013). Shortly following the event the patient may be unable to recall details of the incident; they may have overtly negative thoughts about themselves and/or the world; they may have an exaggerated sense of blame for either themselves or someone else for causing the incident; they may experience negative affect (an overwhelmingly negative view of the world); they may experience a decreased interest in participating in life or activities that once interested them;  they may have extreme feelings of isolation; and they may have difficulty experiencing positive affect (DSM 5, 2013).

After a traumatic event, individuals with PTSD will experience at least two of the following reactivity symptoms; they may become extremely irritable or aggressive; they may partake in risky or dangerous behavior; they may become hypervigilant (meaning that they may be always “on their guard” or “ready to run” at any time); they may have a heightened startle response; and they may experience difficulty with sleeping and/or concentrating (DSM 5, 2013). The symptoms must also have a duration of at least one month, they must cause significant distress or functional impairment in the patient’s life, and they must not be due to substance use or another psychological disorder (DSM 5, 2013).


The National Comorbidity Survey Replication, conducted between February 2001, and April 2003, found that a diagnoses of PTSD, within the adult American population, was a remarkable 6.7 percent. Among men that percentage was 3.6 percent, and among women that percentage was at an astounding 9.7 percent of the population (Gradus, 2017). Women are almost twice as likely as men to experience PTSD in their lifetime, and this is mostly due to either childhood sexual abuse and/or, sexual assault as an adult.

Long term trauma, trauma in which the victim is under complete control of the perpetrator and cannot escape, such as childhood physical or sexual abuse, causes additional symptoms in the victims that may not manifest until later in life, and/or, they can or have, become chronic; causing severe dysfunction in the victim’s life and in their interpersonal relationships. Although it is not listed in the DSM 5, Complex PTSD, is a subtype of PTSD that only effects victims of long term trauma.  Survivors of long term trauma will often display issues with emotional regulation, consciousness, and self-perception; they may have a distorted perception of the perpetrator, often attributing total power to the perpetrator, or becoming preoccupied with revenge; survivors may experience a plethora of problems in their interpersonal relationships, including being unable to trust anyone, repeatedly looking for a “rescuer,” promiscuity may be a problem, or they may take the opposite route and never date anyone; and often survivors are plagued with a feeling of unworthiness, hopelessness, and despair (National Center for PTSD, 2016). Often survivors of childhood sexual abuse have relationships with people who continue to abuse them, or their children. Breaking the cycle of abuse, becomes a major aspect in treatment for these patients.

I started this paper with the belief that not too much research had been done regarding PTSD on victims of childhood sexual abuse, but I found plenty of research. I chose this topic because I am one of the many survivors of childhood sexual abuse, and I plan on targeting trauma, stress, and anxiety related disorders after I complete my doctorate in psychology; I want to know how to help survivors cope with the abuse they suffered through, how to heal from the past, and how to have a quality relationship with a partner in the present.

Natural History of PTSD

Almost everyone experiences some sort of traumatic event at least once in their life, but not everyone develops PTSD. Not everyone with PTSD has been through a dangerous situation either. Symptoms usually start occurring within three months of the incident, but they may not develop until years later. The course of PTSD varies, some patients recover within six months of treatment, but for some patients the condition may last much longer, or it may become chronic. It is important that people who do suffer from PTSD seek professional assistance as soon as possible. Treatment usually consist of psychotherapy and medication, and with treatment, a patient has an increased likelihood of recovering from PTSD. Without treatment a patient may go on to experience additional life problems to include; drug or alcohol abuse, depression or anxiety, physical symptoms of chronic pain, employment problems, and/or, relationships problems (National Center for PTSD, 2016).

Methods used to Diagnose PTSD

Psychologists have a variety of assessments available to them to diagnose PTSD. Some, such as the Beck Anxiety Inventory – Primary Care (BAI-PC), are self-reports, that the patients fill out on their own and then gives to a physician. The BAI-PC is a seven item self-report assessment that screens for anxiety, depression and PTSD, as well as other disorders that are highly co-morbid with PTSD, such as drug or alcohol abuse (Mori, 2003).  A positive score of five indicates the patient may suffer from PTSD, but will need to be screened again by a professional.

Other assessments are designed for use in a primary care setting. The Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM – 5 (PC-PTSD-5) is a five item screen that was designed for use in a primary care setting and is used to determine those patients with probable PTSD (National Center for PTSD, 2017). However, a positive indicator on this assessment means that the patient should undergo a structured interview by a psychologist who specializes in trauma and stress related disorders. If a psychologist determines that a patient has PTSD, the use of medication may be required, but cognitive behavioral therapy and exposure therapy are two recommended treatments for PTSD (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).

Risk Factors

While anyone can experience a traumatic event that results in a diagnosis of PTSD at any time, and at any age, there are certain risk factors involved in developing PTSD. People who have experienced long term trauma, or have a genetic predisposition to the disorder are more prone than others to developing PTSD after a traumatic experience. However, most people will not develop PTSD due to high resilience factors.

Some things that may increase one’s chances of developing PTSD include, living through dangerous events and traumas to include natural disasters; getting hurt; seeing another person hurt, or seeing a dead body; childhood trauma; feeling extreme fear; having little or no social support after the event; dealing with additional stress, such as the loss of a loved one, loss of a job or home, and being injured due to, or after the event (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).

Some things that may make a person more resilient against PTSD include, seeking out assistance and social support, friends, family, and a local support group are all good ideas; learning to feel good about one’s own actions during and following the traumatic experience; and having a positive coping strategy after the event (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). Research is ongoing about the effects of PTSD on the central and peripheral nervous systems, however, some remarkable discoveries have already been discovered, and may assist in the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in the future.

Neurological and Biological Systems Involved in PTSD

Women who have suffered and lived through prolonged childhood sexual abuse make up anywhere from eight to thirty-three percent of the American population, depending on how pervasive the abuse was (Steine et al., 2017). They are more likely to develop intimate relationships with abusers, and the abuse continues into adulthood. The patients who develop PTSD report multiple types of abuse, physical, mental, emotional, sexual, and neglect (Steine et al., 2017).  PTSD effects these patients differently than it does patients who have PTSD but did not suffer childhood sexual abuse (Binder, 2013). Post-traumatic stress disorder effects many parts of the brain, and those are some of the very parts of the brain affected by childhood sexual abuse (Blanco et al., 2015).

PTSD is an extremely complicated disorder, and its effect on the brain and hormones in the body are many and varied. The locus coeruleus, a nucleus located at the base of the brain stem, which is responsible for the bodies response to stress, among other things such as cognition and memory, releases increased amounts of norepinephrine (a hormone) into the body in response to stress. This makes the person more aware of their surroundings, and activates the sympathetic nervous system (flight, fight or freeze system). In patients with PTSD, norepinephrine is released in increased amounts; a patient may have a minor event that reminds them of a past traumatic experience, such as a combination of words, or the way a person touches them, that makes them over-react to the stimulus (Wilson, 2013).

Repeat exposure to trauma, such as in the case of childhood sexual abuse survivors, changes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and endocrine response to stress, as well as its function in metabolic and immune systems of the body (McGowan, 2013). The HPA plays an important role in maintaining allostasis, or the body’s ability to maintain stability amongst challenging environmental circumstances.

The decreased size of the hippocampus shown in most patients with PTSD is related to an increase in the activity of the hormone called cortisol. Cortisol is released in relation to stress and the prolonged exposure to the hippocampus of this hormone has been shown to cause atrophy in the hippocampus, the area of the brain responsible for episodic memory creation. Decreased amounts of cortisol release during the initial event may lead to a chronic over-reaction to stress in patients who later develop PTSD (Sherin, & Nemeroff, 2011).  In addition, functional imaging studies have shown a decrease in response of the prefrontal cortex, and an increase in response from the amygdala in patients with PTSD, leading some scientists to believe that stimulators of the limbic stress system prevail over inhibitors (Malejko, et al., 2017). Since, in PTSD, individuals associate neutral cues with the traumatic event(s), it has been suggested that the interaction between the hippocampus and amygdala, as two regions of the brain that play a role in consolidating memories, may contribute to the intense recollection of trauma experienced by patients with PTSD (Malejko, et al., 2017).

The biological and neurological systems that are involved in, and affected by, PTSD are numerous and varied. Interactions between the stress response system and the threat response systems of patients with PTSD may explain the avoidance and emotional reactivity aspects of PTSD. Reduced connections between the amygdala and cingulate cortex imply a decreased ability to cope with fear vigilance and reactions to threats (Wilson, 2013). Research is underway in regards to genetic factors that may make a person more predisposed to develop PTSD. Recent research has revealed a relationship between the SLC6A4 serotonin transporter genotype and elevated PTSD symptoms (Wilson, 2013). Future studies hope to reveal the interconnectedness between all the neural pathways involved in PTSD.

Treatment Options

Diverse pharmacological and psychological treatments have been used for the treatment of PTSD. Pharmacological treatment doesn’t erase the traumatic memory of the incident(s), instead it aims to control such symptoms as anxiety, depression, and/or alcohol and drug related disorders, all common co-morbid diagnosis with PTSD. Medication to help with sleep disorders and/or nightmares may be prescribed as well (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). Antidepressants, anti-anxiety, and sleep medications are common symptoms control treatments for PTSD. However, the best therapy for PTSD is psychotherapy.

Psychotherapy, also known as “talk therapy,” is the best know treatment for PTSD, and there are various forms of psychotherapy. The two best known treatments for PTSD are cognitive behavioral therapy, and exposure therapy. Both types of therapy should only be attempted with a psychologist who specialized in trauma and stress related disorders.

Cognitive behavioral therapy helps patients to question and then alter their dysfunctional perceptions and reactions to trauma by confronting traumatic memories, and retraining the patient in responding to those memories (Malejko, et al., 2017). Sometimes patients remember the event differently than it happened and in that case psychologists will help the patient remember it the correct way, or help them to make sense of the bad memory. Sometimes the patient may feel blame or guilt for something that is not their fault, and the psychologist will assist the patient in placing blame where it belongs (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).

Exposure therapy involves slowly introducing aspects, such as tactile, visual, auditory, and olfactory cues that remind the patient of the traumatic event(s) (Malejko, et al., 2017). Occasionally, if possible, the psychologist may take the patient to the place the traumatic incident(s) occurred. This helps patients with PTSD learn to face and control their fear. By slowing introducing the patient to the traumatic event in a safe environment, psychiatrists help the patient cope with his or her feelings (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). The main theme of treatment appears to be the confronting and restructuring of memories related to the traumatic experience(s).

Psychotherapy helps patients by teaching them about trauma and its effects on the body and brain. It teaches patients how to manage and control their anger, as well as techniques to relax, and calm down. Patients should learn about how to sleep, exercise, and eat better; learning the effects of how these things can effect responses in the nervous system. In addition, psychotherapy is designed to teach patients how to identify and cope with feelings of shame, guilt, disgust, revenge, and how to have a healthy relationship with oneself and with others (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). In regard to patients with PTSD who also experienced childhood sexual abuse, it is important the doctor imparts to the patient, over and over again, that the abuse is not his or her fault.

Patients are highly encouraged to help themselves as well. Some ways that patients can help themselves recover from PTSD include; taking the first step by talking to their doctor; engage in physical activity every day; break up large tasks into smaller steps, and set realistic goals for oneself. Patients are especially encouraged to engage socially, either with trusted family and friends, or with a support group (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).  Talking about the event gives it less and less power, and patients are encouraged to talk about the event(s), and triggers to people they trust. Patients should be aware that symptoms will improve gradually over time, not immediately. Patients are highly encouraged to seek professional help in an outpatient facility, such as their local mental health center (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).

Future Research

Research is still underway on PTSD, but recent research has encouraged scientists and helped them to narrow their focus on different areas and functions of the brain, as well as possible genetic predispositions to the disorder (Sherin, & Nemeroff, 2011).  Some research is looking at trauma victims in acute care settings to try to better understand how the symptoms improve in those patients who heal naturally. Some research currently underway include looking at how fear memories are effected by learning, changes in the body, and sleep. Preventative treatment measures are also underway; scientists are currently looking into how to prevent PTSD following a traumatic experience. Research into trying to predict how a patient will respond to one intervention or another better is also currently underway. With technology improving every year, one-day scientist may be able to pinpoint the exact gene and part of the brain in which PTSD starts to develop (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).


PTSD is a debilitating disorder that activates the bodies sympathetic nervous system causing the patients to experience a heightened response to stress and trauma, and minor cues of both internal and external stimuli that results in an over exaggerated startle reflex, and intrusive memories of the incident(s). Neurological studies have shown an extensive connection between the stress and fear response in the body’s central and peripheral nervous systems. Long term exposure to trauma, such as in the case of survivors of childhood sexual abuse, shows an increased probability of developing PTSD if one is exposed to trauma as an adult. Unfortunately, survivors of childhood sexual abuse are more likely to engage in unsafe activities and relationships that often result in exposure to more trauma. Psychologists should focus treatment on confronting and reshaping behaviors toward bad memories and traumatic experiences. PTSD is a curable disorder under the direction of a specialists who exposes the patient to the traumatic experience in a safe environment over a long term period. Patient can sometimes expect to see improvement in as little as six months, but, depending on the type of trauma one is exposed to, and its duration, symptoms may become chronic, but manageable. Patients must be willing to take the first step in talking to their primary care provider. “Trauma creates change you don’t choose. Healing creates change you do choose” (Michelle Rosenthal). One must choose to heal by taking away the power of the traumatic experience by talking about it, and remembering that you are not alone.


The Study of Religion

What is Religion?

Merriam Webster defines religion as “a belief in a god or a group of gods; an organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, and rules used to worship a god or a group of gods; an interest, a belief, or an activity that is very important to a person or group; a cause, principle, or system of beliefs held to with ardor and faith” (Merriam Webster, 2016).  However, this is neither a complete nor accurate definition of religion.

Religion could be said to contain some or all of the following eight elements: belief system; community; central myths; ritual; ethics; characteristic emotional experiences; material expression; and sacredness. A belief system is where several beliefs about the universe and humans place in the world fit together to form a worldview. This belief system or worldview is shared by several people in a community, and its ideals are practiced by this community. Religions contain myths or stories about the creator of the universe or about the human helper the creator sent to Earth. It should be noted that myth does not necessarily mean the stories are untrue, just that they are a part of that specific religion. Religions contain rituals or ceremonies that are practiced by the community, such as baptism in Christianity. Religions provide rules or ethics about how people should act and how they should treat others. These rituals and ceremonies usually bring a characteristic emotional experience with them, such as awe, or inner peace, maybe even fear. Religions use material expressions, such as paintings, and statues to depict the lives of the deities or saints that form the religious belief system. Religions carry with a feeling of sacredness by using special clothing, different languages, or places, in the community to shares in this sacredness (Molloy, 2013). Regardless of what religion one believes in and follows, all religions have certain elements in common.

Patterns in World Religions

All religions are different, but all religions are also the same in some ways. All religions have three major patterns that can be seen across cultures, and those patterns are views of the world and life, focus on beliefs and practices, and views on males and females (Molloy, 2013).

All religions attempt to answer one of the most profound questions known to humankind – What is the meaning of life? Why are we here? What is our purpose?  How did the universe come into existence; will it ever end? How do we reach fulfillment or salvation? What is or should be our relationship with nature? What is or what should be our relationship with the sacred or the holy?  All religions answer these questions in different ways (Molloy, 2013).

Some religions define the sacred or “God” as transcendent, living in a realm beyond our ability to reach. Other religions represent sacred as being within humans and nature and can be experienced as energy or a feeling of peace. Sometimes it is seen as having personal attributes, much like humans, and sometimes it is viewed as an impersonal entity, who has not care about humans (Molloy, 2013).

Some religions see the creator of the universe as a personal, caring entity that has a master plan for the cosmos, and that he or she is guiding the world along on an ultimate path that leads to his or her ultimate goal for life. Other religions view the universe as eternal, having neither a beginning nor end. If the religion sees the universe as having been created by a creator, then that religion worships that creator. If, however, the religion views the universe as eternal, with no creator, then the universe becomes the center of that religion (Molloy, 2013).

The human attitude toward nature is also something all religions address. Some religions believe that nature was put here to be the tools for man. Some religions preach that nature is evil and must be overcome. Some religions say that nature is sacred and needs no alterations. And, some religions teach that nature is or was created by a divine being for humans to shape (Molloy, 2013).

In some religions time is considered linear, moving in a straight line from the beginning to the end; the end of everything as we know it. In these religions time is important because it is limited and unrepeatable. In other religions time is cylindrical, moving in an endless pattern of changes that repeat themselves over and over again on a grand scale. In these religions time is not so important, the universe is not moving towards an ultimate ending, and enjoying the present is more important than being concerned about the future (Molloy, 2013).

In some religions, humans have a purpose and are part of a great divine plan. Individual meaning comes from within and from the divine in the context of a great struggle between the forces of good and evil. In these religions human actions are of great importance and therefore, their actions are prescribed by a righteous moral code. In other religions, however, human life and their actions are not viewed as important, and the individual person is only part of a much larger reality. In these religions, humans are not seen as a small part of a larger plan; they are seen as part of a family, society, and the universe as a whole; placing more importance on how one may achieve harmony with the universe, as opposed to their individual salvation. Human action is not guided by a divine moral code, but by the family and society of the individual (Molloy, 2013).

Different Approaches to Studying Religions

            The study of religion was, at one time, divided among different academic fields. Fields such as psychology, theology, and philosophy would study different aspects of religions. Now, the study of religion is unified into one academic field, but all the different fields still study religion as part of their curriculum.

Psychology means soul study in Greek, and encompasses the study of human mental states, emotions, and behaviors. Psychology takes a special interest in religions because of its rich material in human experiences. Mythology is the study of myths, which is the study of religious stories, texts, and arts that reveal universal commonalities. Philosophy means the love of wisdom in Greek, and encompasses the study of human life and their purpose. Theology means the study of the divine in Greek, and encompasses the study of one particular religious belief, usually the religion of the theologies who is doing the studying in order to gain a deeper understanding of their own religion (Molloy, 2013).

Critical Issues in Studying Religion

The academic study of religion has, in the past, been carried out by individuals seeking to find further knowledge in their own religion. However, in recent decades, there has been a shift in this cycle where now people are wanting to study religion academically without promoting the beliefs of one religion over another. The great questions of religions were once studied as a philosophy course in colleges, while other aspects of religious beliefs were found scattered in such academic departments as anthropology, history, or psychology. The study of religion then was very fragmented, scattered all over the college campus, and no unified course could be found.

In the recent past, all of this has changed and now most campuses have a department for studying religion as a whole. However, the academic study of religion brings problems and questions, as well as clarity, insight, and answers. Some concerns include the rights and obligations that professionals hold towards the practitioners of each religion, the truthfulness of informants or interpreters, the objectivity of the professional, and how, and in what way do researchers change indigenous communities.



Molloy, M. (2013). Experiencing the world’s religions: Tradition, challenge, and change (6th

Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Religion. (n.d.). Retrieved June 13, 2016, from http://www.merriam


Shintoism is an ancient Japanese religion that is still practiced today in Japan. Shinto can be translated as meaning “the way of the gods,” and those gods in Shintoism are called the Kami. There are many Kami’s, and they are usually related to natural elements, such as the Sun, the Moon, the forests, the rivers, and the mountains. Shinto is a nature religion, with elements of ancestral worship, as Shintoists believe that loved ones who have passed away become Kami as well, and they, much like the Chinese, will have shrines dedicated to certain Kami, including loved ones (Molloy, 2013).

Shintoism is not a religion that has a sacred text, but it is a religion that preaches that there is not one moralistic God who gives commands, but rather that humans are essentially good, and so is this earth, and life in general. Shintoists believe that this Earth is the heavenly realm that most religions preach one can only reach through death. Shintoists believe that individuals should strive to live up to the expectations that are placed on them in this “heavenly realm” here on Earth (Molloy, 2013).

With this heavenly realm in mind, Shintoists believe that cleanliness is at the core of those expectations. One should strive to keep one’s body, mind, house, clothes, etc. as clean as possible, and when they become dirty they must be washed and blessed by a Shinto priest. This cleanliness also applies to one’s character, and Shintoist are expected to keep one’s reputation “clean” by having sincerity. Humans maintain their sincerity by repaying debts, fulfilling obligations, and apologizing for misdeeds (Molloy, 2013).

Today, Shinto temples can be found throughout Japan. Shinto practitioners visit these temples to pray for the health and wellbeing of their family members, for success, and for good health for their selves. The priests of the Shinto temples can be found saying blessings over those praying, while waving a white wand of paper streamers. White is very important in Shinto as it represents the cleanliness and purity of the Kami. The priests, who perform the blessings, and they perform many throughout Japan, include blessings to drive out evil spirits in cars, can always be found wearing white and carrying those white wands (Molloy, 2013).

In the Shinto religion, New Years is a very important celebration, and Shinto practitioners will clean their houses from top to bottom, and adorn the front door with a kadomatsu or entry pine, symbolizing human virtue. During the New Year’s celebration, which takes several days, individuals visit family members, eating special rice balls called mochi, which is adorned with tangerines, signifying wealth and fertility, and the planting of rice in the spring. The whole holiday is representative of cleansing and the renewal of life (Molloy, 2013).

Traditional Shinto practices once put great importance upon the changing of the seasons, especially in regards to the planting and harvesting of rice. These traditional practices are becoming less important in the modern land of Japan, but there are still practices seen in Japan that can be linked to these traditional practices. One such practice is the finding of small shrines found in forests, fields, and mountains. One may find many practices related to the purification elements of water, as even individual practitioners will wash their hands with water before entering a temple. Individuals can also still be found practices the ancient art of misogi, where an individual stand under a waterfall, letting the water purify his mind and body. The practitioner must perform a series of calisthenics and deep breathing exercise before entering the waterfall, and be cleansed with a bit of salt. Misogi combines the ritual element of cleanliness and the Shinto ideal of self-discipline (Molloy, 2013).




Molloy, M. (2013). Experiencing the world’s religions: Tradition, challenge, and

Change (6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


Daoism and the Daodejing (Tao Te Ching)

The Daodejing is generally considered to be one of the world’s greatest books; next to the Bible, it is the most published book in the world. The Daodejing is dated to about 350 BCE, and is said to be written by Laozi, and contains the teachings on Daoism. It is said that Laozi was forced to write his teachings down before he could leave the country of China. The book is considered to be more poetry than pose, and is considered to have no clear order and a lack of clarity. Suggesting that the book has no clear author, but is instead a collection of works gathered over time (Molloy, 2013).

The Daodejing contains elements of early shamanistic teachings, including instructions on meditation and obtaining a trance like state. It also has been considered to be a political handbook, a religious guidebook, or as a guide to living in harmony with the universe. Whatever its original purpose, the Daodejing teaches that the Dao is not a thing, not like a god or a tree or even a human, but more of a presence that cannot be named. The Dao is the origin of everything, and all individuals are manifestations of the Dao (Molloy, 2013).

Although the Dao is something that cannot be named, it is something that can be felt. To experience the Dao, one must leave behind their appetite for physical things, our desires, and wants. That one must become like nature, moving with the flow of change in one’s life, much like the water flows and assists the obstacles it faces. Accepting that one is different, neither resisting nor competing (Molloy, 2013).

The Principles of Yang and Yin

Yang and Yin developed about 1000BCE, and contains the principle notion that the world expresses itself in complementary elements, light and dark, day and night, bad and good, the list goes on and on (Molloy, 2013).

These principles are not the same as good and evil. One is not expected to “win out” over the other. Instead, the notion is that everything contains it’s opposite and will eventually become its opposite. Both elements are in perfect balance, like energy or pulsations, breathing in and out (Molloy, 2013).

The Principle of Wu Wei

Wu wei is the ideal of effortlessness, or the ability to “go with the flow.” The ideal recommends a way of avoiding unnecessary action. Working only as hard as one must to accomplish what is necessary, much like nature, and no more (Molloy, 2013).

For example, one may be the recipient of a viscous rumor. One may think that confronting those who started the rumor may be the best course of action. However, a Daoist would see things differently. A Daoist would believe that the best course of action would be to do nothing. To let the rumor run its course and to not worry about it, but to just accept it.

An example of when following the way of the wu wei would be ill advised is if one was in serious trouble with the law, and was facing jail time. (I don’t know this by experience, it’s just an example I could come up with.) I would think in a situation where one is accused of a serious crime the best course of action, if one is innocent, is to fight and try to find as much evidence as possible to prove one’s innocence.


Molloy, M. (2013). Experiencing the world’s religions: Tradition, challenge, and

Change (6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


I started a new class about two weeks ago – Physiological Psychology, a.k.a. Behavioral Neuroscience. That means, that about every five words or so, I have to stop reading and google what it is that I just read. My brain has too many tabs open… I saw that, somewhere. Facebook, I think. I can’t think, so, I’m writing. Probably a bad idea, but let’s see where it goes.

In light of trying to keep up with homework, family, this blog, and all other social media sites that one has to appear on every day, I have resorted to posting prior papers I have written in the past. I, personally, do not see an issue with this, as I did write the papers; I just wrote them for school.

I am a firm believer that education can stamp out ignorance, and I have attempted to spread some knowledge by posting a link to this blog on a few groups in Facebook. I do not think people read the papers, and truly, that’s okay. But, if you do not read them, why fight me about it? I am not promoting any one religion over another, or saying that you have to believe anything I say. Please feel free to do your own research.

I would like to address a couple of things. First, my intent is to spread knowledge about religions in the hopes of bringing about some understanding and peace. If there is one thing that ALL religions have in common, it is the belief that one should love their fellow man, and this beautiful earth that we all live upon.

Second, I am not a “religious freak,” (sic.), as anyone who knows me will tell you. I do have a particular interest in religions, but it is an educational interest only. I am a scientist. I believe in the Big Bang and Evolution. I will not fight anyone about this. There is loads and loads of evidence proving the existence of both. If you do not believe all that evidence, you will not believe me, and I will not waste my time.

I do not adhere to any one religion, and I do not follow any one religion. I have studied many religions, and I personally believe that they all have elements of truth in them. I am a believer in a Universal Consciousness that, I like to call, love. If I had to pick a “religion” it would be love. I am very spiritual, and I find my “god” in nature. I probably do not believe in god the way you do, and that’s okay. We can still be friends.


Hinduism is an ancient religion that has spread throughout the Asian continent and influenced many other religions along its path. Hinduism has multiple gods and goddess, but has one main reality that is Brahman, in which all the gods and goddess are a part of. Hinduism basic beliefs are that people are trapped here in on Earth, through ignorance and illusion. However, people can overcome their current incarnation by being born higher in the reincarnation system. Thus, animals can be reincarnated into humans and vice versa. One may change their status by practices yoga, meditation, and by living according to ones dharma or purpose or role in life (Molloy, 2013).

Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism

There are similarities to be found in Hinduism that link many different religions together. For instance, Buddhism arose and evolved in India as well, and the similarities between the two religions are more numerous than not. For example, both religions believe in Karma, and reincarnation. However, Buddhist do not believe that the human body has a soul, whereas Hinduisms believe that every human has a soul that can be trapped in an animal body and be reborn into a human body based on one’s karma (Molloy, 2013).

In both Buddhism and Hinduism, there is not a “set in stone” ethical or moral code one must follow. Instead both religions believe that ethics are created by the individual or social class in which one grows up. The differences in the religions, however is what marks them as different. Hinduism is greatly concerned with ones caste or social position in this life, and how to bring greater wealth upon one’s soul so that one may rise to a higher caste system in their next life. Buddhists, on the other hand, do not concern themselves with the things of this world. Buddhism focuses on a release of suffering, and attaining Nirvana (Redmond, 2004).

Hinduism also has points of similarity with Confucianism. Both religions belief that humans play a large part in other humans lives, and they look to the social actions of individuals, their role in society and the societal hierarchy in general. Both religions look for the common good that will promote peace and brotherhood among its followers. Both religions also believe in a class system, where one may rise above their class if they have earned the right to do so. Both religious belief system have achieved a social hierarchy, but through different means. Hinduism has used the caste system, whereas Confucianism has used education and social pressure (Tu, & Daisaku, 2011).

Hinduism Today

One of the biggest problems facing Hinduism today is the practice of the caste system in Indian society. Some Hinduisms today believe that maintaining the caste system especially that of the untouchables is acceptable and keeping with traditional Hinduistic believes. However, the untouchables in modern India have made great strides towards equality or eliminating the caste system. Untouchables or Dalits are now able to enter Hindu temples, all of them, and they are gaining ground in the jobs and education department. That is what is happening in big cities, but in villages, the untouchables are still required to live away from the rest of the village, and to mostly tend for themselves (Molloy, 2013). The traditional caste system is rooted in traditional Hinduism, and although the Indian government is attempting to change tradition, all too often this can be a long and arduous journey, and many who have suffered in the past continue to suffer today (Javaid; Majid; & Zahid, 2014).

Women in Hinduism Today

Women have a debated place in Hinduism, as some scholars say that women at one time might have played a large part in Indian society due to the importance of female deities in Hinduism and that there have many female gurus or wise women, throughout the history of Hinduism (Molloy, 2013).

However, over the years, women have fell out of their role of importance and have been moved to a lower caste, regardless of the social caste they were born into. Just as other religions have canonized their religious doctrines to mostly favor the male, so too did Hinduism during the Vedic period. By the code of Manu, women were, in general, subservient to males, and a wife was supposed to be subservient to her husband. Women were expected to treat their husbands as gods, regardless of their treatment of her. Women were not taught to read or write because it would distract from their duties as a wife and mother (Molloy, 2013).

Today, while many Indian women are educated and may go on to hold high positions in their choice of career, have things really improved for women? Education is only half the battle, albeit a very important part of equality, but still only half. Today, Indian women are expected to take on dual roles of both bread winner and mother and wife, however, it would appear that her male counterparts will do anything to impede her progress (Position of women in India today, 2014).

Today’s modern Indian woman is plagued by rapes, sexual harassment, threats and violence by her husband, and honor killings. She can hardly go into the street to get to work without being harassed by a male individual on her way. Rural women have hardly made any progress, as she is usually confined to the four walls of her own home by her husband who holds the ties to everything she is allowed or not allowed to do. Young girls are still married and sold to older, sometimes much older, men quite commonly in rural India, even though the Indian government have outlawed child marriages (Position of women in India today, 2014).

The traditional view of women within the Hindu religion may be coming back around, as women are once again allowed to become gurus. One such example of a modern female guru is one woman by the name of         Amma the hugging saint (Dhruvarajan, 2010). Mata Amritanandamayi, also known as Amma, is a current guru in India, and she is known for her selfless love and compassion for all living beings. She has never asked anyone to change their religion, but has only shown love and compassion for all those she has an encounter with. Even though she is Hindu, she says her religion is love, and she has dedicated her life to helping the poor and elevating pain from all those who need elevation (, 2016).


Although Hinduism is one of the oldest religions in the world, it has also undergone multiple changes throughout the centuries being influenced by oppressors and lovers alike. Today, Hinduism is struggling to bring their traditional values into a more modern world. Deep rooted traditions, regardless of religion, however, take a long time to change, and Hinduism is just recently started its journey towards equality among the castes and the sexes.







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(Ed.), Encyclopedia of Bioethics (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 866-870). New York: Macmillan

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Tu, W., & Daisaku, I. (2011). New Horizons in Eastern Humanism : Buddhism, Confucianism

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Javaid, U., Majid, A., & Zahid, S. F. (2014). Low caste in India (untouchables). South Asian

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Position of women in India today. (2014, Dec 15). The Assam Tribune Retrieved from

Dhruvarajan, V. (2010). Women as leaders in Hinduism. In K. O’Connor Gender and women’s

Leadership: A reference handbook (Vol. 2, pp. 496-503). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE

Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781412979344.n52 (2016). Mata Amritanandamayi, also known as Amma. Retrieved from

Molloy, M. (2013). Experiencing the world’s religions: Tradition, challenge, and

Change (6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Three Techniques to Cope with Anxiety

I am an introvert. In our extroverted society, just making that statement can be anxiety provoking. People assume the worst about introverts; that we’re cold, reserved, don’t like people, like to be alone, etc. But, the truth is, most introverts just like meaningful conversation with people who make them feel good about themselves. Introverts have a hard time with small talk, and may talk too much when nervous or stressed; causing awkward situations for both the introvert and the people around them. As a result of this, introverts often suffer from social anxiety, or, occasionally, generalized anxiety disorder. For this post, I will discuss social anxiety, as that is the type of anxiety I suffer from, and therefore, have the most experience with.

Social anxiety involves fear of social situations, or situations where an individual may be exposed to the judgement of others. These unreasonable fears are usually accompanied by thoughts such as, “everybody is thinking how much better this place would be without you,” “you always make a fool of yourself,” “you can’t do anything right,” or “nobody is ever going to like you, you might as well give up.” These can be debilitating thoughts, and the fear they cause can have physical manifestations. For instance, when I am experiencing an anxiety attack, my hands get sweaty, my heart starts to race, and my stomach starts to twist and turn. This is the body’s sympathetic nervous system; your flight, fight, freeze, or submit system, and it is automatic. While you cannot control this system, you can control your responses.

Three responses, or coping mechanisms, one can employ when having an anxiety attack, rather social or otherwise, include changing one’s thoughts, breathing and relaxation exercises, and distraction exercises.

Changing one’s thoughts is probably the hardest thing to do, however, the benefits of realized that not everyone hates you, are extremely beneficial. Some coping sentences one can use when facing an anxiety provoking situation include: “It is better for me to think about my positive qualities than my negative qualities, or think about what I can do, rather than what I cannot do.”  Focusing on your positive qualities can have an uplifting feeling, and give you the confidence you need to forge ahead, or enter that party, or family get together.

“If I plan what I will do or say, I will feel more confident.” Planning the situation, and an initial conversation you have be beneficial, as long as you do not let your negative thoughts overcome your rational thoughts. Conversations rarely go as bad in real life as they do in your head, or even close to what you rehearse, but planning how to say, “hello, how are you?” may benefit your nervous system and help you to realize that your fears of being hated by everyone are unreasonable.

“I can do this.” Simple, yet, effective. You can do it. Just keep repeating that to yourself while doing some deep breathing. Everything will be fine. People like you. You are a likeable person. Try it.

Breathing and relaxation exercises are extremely beneficial in calming the sympathetic nervous system. The progressive relaxation exercises, developed by Edmund Jacobson, involves tensing each part of your body, starting with your toes and working your way up, for five seconds, without straining, followed by ten seconds of relaxing each part of your body, consecutively. One could also practice mediation, which I have found to be extremely helpful in calming my nerves. While practicing these relaxation exercises, try to employ some distraction exercise.

Distraction exercises are great when you are placed in an unexpected social situation (the fear of all introverts). Some thought distraction exercises I personally employ, are naming items in the room that start with a given letter of the alphabet – just pick a letter. Conjure up images in your mind’s eye of your favorite place, and then walk down all the paths located there. Remember the words to your favorite song, and sing it to yourself, until the fear has passed. Some physical distraction exercises, especially for when you are at a large gathering, include offering to do the dishes, play with or babysit the children, or offer to hand out beverages or food.

Remember that having social anxiety is manageable, and that often your fears are worse than reality. Question your fears. Is it reasonable to assume that everyone hates you? Is it reasonable to assume that you always mess things up? Of course, the answer to both those questions is: no!  Be careful of black and white thinking that places everything and everyone into either or categorizes. Everybody is human and has good and bad days, experiences high and low emotions, and have good and bad moods, just because you are around for a low, doesn’t mean that low has anything to do with you. In fact, it probably doesn’t.

If you suffer from past trauma, or abuse, these techniques will work for you in the short run, but I recommend consulting a psychologist for further techniques in handling anxiety, especially if it interferes with your daily living. Anxiety is a psychological disorder that is manageable by a variety of therapy techniques, and it does not have to rule your life!