The Benefits of Space Exploration


Mankind has always had an interest in exploring and discovering new things; this interest has spanned oceans, lands, and vast seas of stars and planets. From the very first mention of astronomy in ancient Babylon to the current race to Mars, space exploration has always been a fascination of the human race. In ancient times, astronomy was used to track seasons, predict future events, and in some cases, architecture. But, today mankind doesn’t just stand on earth and study the stars, they can now travel to the stars. With NASA and private companies such as Mars One, planning a manned mission to Mars within the next fifteen years, the debate on rather or not to send manned missions into space is a hot one. Some scientists claim manned missions into space are not only a waste of money but a dangerous waste of money and that robots can accomplish the same thing with less money and risk. Other scientists argue that the benefits of colonizing Mars, advancing the human race and the possibility of finding life out there, make the cost and the risk worthwhile.

Safe Travel through Space

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has always played an active role in the advancement of technology. NASA scientists have invented such products as LED lighting, memory foam, artificial limbs, cochlear implants, scratch resistant eyeglass wear, and insulin pumps for diabetic patients (John Jones, Dan Lockney, 2008). While these are all inventions most people are familiar with, they are all offshoots of other inventions meant to send manned missions safely into space.

NASA has been busy for the last fifty years, concentrating more on sending robotic missions into space rather than manned missions. Some of those missions include the Mars rover, the Hubble spacecraft, and the newest mission due to launch on March 12th 2015, Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS); which will study the reconnection of the magnetic field surrounding the Earth (NASA, 2015). However, with the manned mission to Mars on the horizon NASA, Mars One, and Inspiration Mars are now concentrating on safe travel for humans through space.

The first planned trip to Mars is Inspiration Mars, a two manned mission that is to be “… launched on a flight path that takes it looping around the Red Planet and then directly back to Earth” (Henbest, 2013, p. 2. para.2). The most dangerous part of the trip will be reentry when the spacecraft enters Earth’s atmosphere around 50,000 kilometers per hour, faster than any mission before it (Henbest, 2013). To combat the possibility that the astronauts will fry upon reentry, the scientists involved with Inspiration Mars are working with NASA to create a heat shield to surround the spaceship.

NASA is building the Orion capsule to send a manned mission to Mars’s moon, Phobos in 2025, but they lack a detailed plan (Henbest, 2013). The intent is to overview a robotically built planetary base on Mars with the astronauts due to fly there in 2031. However, by 2031, NASA may already be behind the Mars One mission, which plans on landing humans on Mars by 2025.

Bas Lansdorp and Arno Wielders, the founders of Mars One, have plans to colonize Mars by 2025. The flight to Mars will last four to six months, and the astronauts will never return to Earth (Henbest, 2013).  The largest dangers to the human body from spending so much time in space are muscle atrophy, bone density loss, and radiation damage from both just being in space, and from the sun (Henbest, 2013). Solar radiation (radiation from the sun) is much harder to shield against than the radiation that naturally exist in space. In order to protect the Astronauts on board the Mars One mission, Lansdorp has invented a spaceship that will have “… several thousand liters of water filling a hollow shell around the crews sleeping compartment” (Henbest, 2013, p. 3.para.12). As the best protection against solar radiation is organic matter, not heavy lead shields. As the first human colonization of another planet, Mars One will also face unique situations when they land on Mars.

Safely Living On Mars

Life on Mars will vary from life on Earth in many ways. The lighting on Mars varies from an amber color to a gray color, temperature varies from -225 degrees to 64 degrees Fahrenheit, the atmosphere is made up of primarily carbon dioxide (95%) and unpredictable dust storms that can be miles long and last for days can wreak havoc on infrastructures. Gravity on Mars is about a third of what it is on Earth and days are about thirty-nine minutes longer (Henbest, 2013). So, how will humans survive and prosper in such harsh conditions?

The dust present in the Martin atmosphere causes the sunsets and sunrises to have an opposite effect on what occurs on Earth; “… instead of our blue-sky with pinkish/red effects around the sun, Mars presents pinkish-red sunsets/sunrises with touches of blue in the vicinity of the Sun” (Discovery Channel, 2015, p. 1.para.7). Days and twilights will last longer, and astronauts will have to adjust to the longer days by wearing special watches designed to keep Martian time (Discovery Channel, 2015).

Since the gravity on Mars is 38% of the value of Earth, exercise, and special precaution will have to be taken to prevent muscle atrophy and bone density loss. Astronauts will carry exercise equipment with them to the Red planet, and they will need to develop a way to walk on Mars, such as the bunny hop the astronauts used on the Moon (Discovery Channel, 2015). “The effects of gravity on humans and living organism are not fully understood and need further study. Results to date have shown a profound effect on the health of humans. Thus, new methodologies and technologies need to be developed to keep humans healthy and productive and grow crops in this environment” (Krishen, 2009, p. 231. para.6). While the production of plants on Mars can be accomplished through hydroponics and artificial lighting; how will the first astronauts to Mars produce enough water to survive?

The first unmanned mission to Mars is a demonstration mission and it is set to prove the technologies needed to colonize Mars (Mars One, 2014). The Mars One probe, as it is being called, is charged with setting up a direct line of sight between Earth and Mars so the camera and satellite can communicate with Earth and so Earth can have a live feed of Mars 365 days a year (Mars One, 2014). It is also responsible for settling on a spot where water can be extracted from the Martian soil and for testing a variety of thin film solar panels, both experiments will prove the feasibility of human colonization on Mars (Mars One, 2014). Scientist believes that just under the topsoil of Mars is a thin layer of ice, and the Mars One probe will utilize that ice to make water for the human colony.

Human Verses Robot

Traditionally, robots are used in lieu of persons. They are sent on missions too dangerous or inaccessible to people, and the purpose has always been to prepare the way for humans. However, with the cost of one person being sent to Mars around 50 billion per; some scientist argues that it is too expensive and too dangerous to send humans to live on Mars. They believe robots can accomplish the same goals at a percentage of the cost and with no life lost (Discovery Channel, 2015).

The argument for robot versus human is a vast and highly complex case. Some of the reasons these scientists believe robot only missions would be best including; eliminating the risk of human error, eliminating the need for psychosocial and psychological evaluations, elimination of long-term health effects on humans, and the cost of sending robots to Mars is exponentially lower than manned missions plus return trips are not needed (Discovery Channel, 2015).

However, robots are not as independent or as functional as humans. They require constant supervision and direction from humans; if they are out of communication with Earth, they just sit and wait for further instruction (Discovery Channel, 2015). Whereas, humans can perform tasks and still maintain the mission if communications with ground control are lost (Discovery Channel, 2015). Humans can make independent decisions and do not require constant supervision.

The cost of sending humans into space is extraordinary, whereas the cost of sending robots is dependent upon the technologies used on that robot. “Humans are bulky, fragile and expensive to maintain” (Discovery Channel, 2015, p. 1. table 1. section 6.). Robots, on the other hand, are economical, expandable, and they don’t need supplies. However, some scientist would argue that “… the scientific gains of one human mission would be worth that of ten robot only missions” (Discovery Channel, 2015) as humans can continue advancing technologies and exploring space without direct instructions.


Although some scientists say that human space exploration is both a dangerous risk to our astronauts and a waste of money, the thought of exploring space has always been a fascination of mankind. From the very beginning of history, we see evidence of mapping of the planets, galaxies, and stars. Mankind will always want to travel beyond and reach higher than the moon, with the new plans to colonize Mars, mankind may soon have the answer to rather or not there is life out there.


Discovery Channel. (2015). Life on Mars: A travel brochure for the Red Planet. Retrieved from Discovery Channel:

Discovery Channel. (2015). Robots Versus Astronaunts. Retrieved from Discovery Channel:

Henbest, N. (2013, July 13). Life on Mars. New Scientist, 219(2925), 02. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from

John Jones, Dan Lockney. (2008). NASA Technologies Benefit Our Lives. Retrieved from Spinoff:

Krishen, K. (2009). Technology Needs for Future Space Exploration. IETE Technical Review, 26(4), 228-235. Retrieved Febuary 20, 2015, from

Mars One. (2014, Febfuary). Mars One – First Private Mars Mission in 2018. Retrieved from Indie Go Go:

NASA. (2015). Magnetospheric Multiscale. NASA. NASA. Retrieved from

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Psychological disorders are malfunctions in the mind that involve one’s thoughts, behaviors, or emotions that cause an individual significant distress and dysfunction over a period of time. Psychological disorders may interfere with a person’s ability to function in everyday life; they may be unable to meet their own personal needs, and/or be a danger to themselves or others. Generalized anxiety disorder is not considered to a dangerous disorder, however, it can cause some severe dysfunction in patients’ lives. In this paper, I will discuss generalized anxiety disorder from a neurobehavioral perspective.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition, (DSM-V), generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive worry and apprehension that last longer than six months and pervades every aspect of the person’s life, or nearly every aspect, and the individual finds it difficult to control these thoughts (DSM-V, 2013). This anxiety causes a variety of symptoms of which three or more must be present for more days than not over the six-month period; restlessness, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, and/or sleep disturbances. These disturbances in a person’s life cannot be explained by either an addiction, such as a drug or alcohol addiction, or by another psychological disorder (DSM-V, 2013).

Biopsychosocial Theory

Generalized anxiety disorder is a disease that is caused by a variety of factors. Anxiety is generally considered to be a disorder that people are genetically predisposed too. Research has shown that generalized anxiety disorder has a heredibility factor, however, one’s environment will contribute a great deal to rather or not one develops generalized anxiety disorder (Brown, O’Leary, & Barlow, 2001). Although one may be predisposed to develop generalized anxiety disorder, evidence shows that stressful life events in childhood may play a contributing factor, events such as child abuse, the loss of a parent, or insecure attachments to caregivers (Brown, O’Leary, & Barlow, 2001). It is a comorbid disorder often occurring along with other disorders such as; autism, depression, sleep disorders, or substance abuse.

Evidence shows that the amygdala and areas of the forebrain are involved in generalized anxiety disorder. The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA), and centromedial amygdala complex, receive information about potentially negative emotions, activating the GABA neurotransmitters, leading to somatic manifestations of anxiety (Nuss, 2015).


Generalized anxiety disorder is not a rare disease. In fact, it’s prevalence in the US may range as high as five percent of the population. It is found to be more prevalent in low income families, white, adult, women, and within those social groups of people who are widowed, separated, or divorced (Weisberg, 2009).


Generalized anxiety disorder is more than just excessive worrying. It can impair one’s ability to think clearly, and concentrate on a task. It can sap a person’s energy, and make it hard for them to sleep. It can lead to a worsening of, or be the cause of other psychological disorders such as; depression, substance abuse, insomnia, digestive problems, headaches, and may even cause heart problems. Generalized anxiety disorder has also been linked to suicidal tendency, and some people who suffer from the disorder to manage to carry out their suicide (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2016).

Treatment Options

The two main treatment options for generalized anxiety disorder are psychotherapy, or medication; usually a combination of both. Cognitive behavioral therapy is the most effective therapy for generalized anxiety disorder, as it involves teaching the patient how to respond better to stress and negative emotions. Several different medications are used to treat generalized anxiety disorder including antidepressants, antianxiety, and benzodiazepines (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2016).

Antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), are usually the first choice of physicians when treating anxiety disorders. Antidepressants and antianxiety medications take up to several weeks to work, and the side effects can be drastic, to include suicidal thoughts; physicians are advised to carefully monitor patients, changing medications if severe side effects do occur. Benzodiazepines are only used on short term basis for patients who are suffering from acute anxiety attacks, and should not be used for patients with a history of substance abuse because they can be addicting (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2016).


Generalized anxiety is a psychological disorder that is quite prevalent in the population of the United States. People who suffer from this disorder are likely to stress and worry over the smallest thing in an uncontrollable manner, and this stress is likely to affect their personal life increasing the likely hood of them developing another psychological disorder. But, anxiety can be controlled with the assistance of a physician, through the use of psychotherapy, and medications. I believe Juliana Hatfield described anxiety, and its symptoms, best when she said, “Sometimes I feel like a human pincushion. Every painful emotion hits me with ridiculously exaggerated force. And, the anxiety feels like hands inside of me, squeezing my guts really hard.”























Nuss, P. (2015). Anxiety disorders and GABA neurotransmission: a disturbance of

modulation. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment11, 165–175.

Brown, Timothy A., O’Leary, Tracy A., & Barlow, David H.(2001). Clinical Handbook of

            Psychological Disorders, Third Edition: A Step-by-Step Treatment Manual, Chapter

Four. Retrieved from:

Weisberg, Risa B. (2009). Overview of Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Epidemiology,

Presentation, and Course. Journal of  Clinical Psychiatry 2009;70(suppl 2):4-9. Retrieved


Mayo Clinic Staff. (2016). Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Complications. Retrieved from:


Juliana Hatfield. Retrieved from: